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Edward Livingston (1764-1836), a member of the wealthy Livingston family of Columbia County, New York, was a lawyer and the mayor of New York City from 1801 to 1803. He then moved to New Orleans, where he aided his friend Andrew Jackson during the Battle of New Orleans and later represented the state in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1823 to 1829 and in the U.S. Senate from 1829 to 1831. He replaced MVB as the Secretary of State in Jackson's cabinet in 1831 and served as the Minister Plenipotentiary to France from 1833 to 1835. 


"Edward Livingston," Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, accessed March 29, 2021,, Charles Havens Hunt, Life of Edward Livingston (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1864),, accessed March 29, 2021,…