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Address to the electors of New York, [c9 March 1813]

To the Electors of the State of Newyork

Fellow Citizens,

It is not to the arbitrary mandates of despotic power, it is not to the that your submission is demanded. It is not to the wishes of the ^seductive^ wiles and ^artfull^ blandishments of the corrupt minions of aristocracy, that your attention is called, but ^it is^ to an expression and discussion of the wishes & feelings and sentiments of your representatives. that your consideration is respectfully solicted. ^You are invited^ to listen with calmness and <modera> impartiality to the sentiments and opinions of men who have claim no rights superior to yours own who have no Interests distinct from yours, who claim no authority to address you save that of reason ^save that of custom^, who if they obtain the coincidence of public opinion will not ^would scorn to^ obtain ^the coincidence of your opinion^ it by force or Stratagem for they claim ^and who seek a^ no influence with you except that which arises from conscious rectitude and from a community of hopes & of fears, of rights and of Interests.

In making this appeal which is sanctioned by usage & the necessity of which is rendered imperious by ^the^ situation of our common country, we feel it to be our duty as it our wish to s^p^eak to you in the language which alone becomes freemen to use, the only language to which alone it becomes freemen to listen, that is the language of truth & sincerity, to speak to you of things as they are not ^and^ as they should be, to speak to you with unrestrained freedom of your rights and your duties, and if by so doing we shall be so fortunate as to convince you of the correctness of the opinions we hold and to communicate to you the anxious solicitude we feel for our country and its rights, to turn your attention from the minor considerations which have hitherto, divided distracted and disgraced the american people and to turn them ^direct^ it exclusively to the consideration of contemplation & support of those ^your^ national honor & national Interest our first and you only object will be effected.

Fellow Citizens,

That tempest of passion of power & & of lawless violence, which has hitherto almost exclusively raged in the countries of the old world, which has ravaged the fairest portions of the earth and caused her sons to drink deep spirit of the cup of human miseries not satiated by the myriads of victims which have been sacraficed at its Shrine has reached our heretofore peaceable shores. After years of forbearance, notwithstanding in spite ^despite^ of concessions without number & we had almost said without limitation, that end and in cruel and unrelenting spirit of oppression and Injustice which has for centuries characterised the spirit of the British cabinet, which has overwhelmed nation after nation & which has caused humanity to shed tears of blood, has involved us in a war, on the termination of which are staked the present honor & the future welfare of America.

☞(While thus engaged in this ^an^ arduous and interesting to struggle with the open enemies of our land from without, the formation of your government requires that you be should exercise the elective franchise that several and inestimable ^a^ right which by the blessings of divine providence is as yet <enj> while in every other country has been destroyed by the ruthless power hand of power or blasted by the unhallowed touch of Corruption but which by the blessings of a munificent provider has as yet been preserved to you in its purity.

You ☞(The Selection of your most important public functionaries is at hand. In a government like ours where all power & sovereignty rests with the people, the exercise of ^this^ right, & the consequent expression of public opinion sentiment and public feeling is on ordinary occasions a matter of deep interest but and ^but^ at a period like the present of vital importance to the <least> of <direct> interests of our country. To satisfy ^you^ of that importance and to advise you in its exercise is the object of this address.

Fellow Citizens, your country is at War, and great Britain is her enemy. Indulge us in a brief examination of the causes which have lead to it, and brief as from the necessary limits of an address it must be, we <friendly> ^yet^ hope it will be suffici found sufficiently lengthy to satisfy ^convince^ every honest man, of the high Justice and the indispensible necessity of the attitude which our Government has taken, of the sacred duty of every real american to support her in that attitude and of the parricidual conduct ^views^ of those who refuse to do so.

The Struggle which gave birth to our Independence, and made us a nation, Separated from political connection with the corrupt governments of Europe ^emancipated^ a country calculated by nature to become make rapid progress to whose natural Situation was a sure pledge of its ^her^ future greatness, ^a country which was^ inhabited by a people eminently calculated to lead ^exalt^ her ^prosperity^ to the highest eminence, and to push ^advance^ her prom ^name^ to the most distinguished renown. Great Britain with the penetration ^which^ has generally distinguished her cabinets saw the ^our^ rising & prosperity and it ^she^ saw or thought she saw its future interference with her own. The acknowledgment of our Independence was not the result of choice but of force, the same Spirit which rendered that Spirit ^acknowledgment^ the most galling to the pride the most agravating to the rancour of her Government ^ministers^. Still exhisted, it was her power alone which you had propetiated ^subdued^, her feelings and her resentments were left in arms.

☞ (At the close of the revolution the war with this country was in the highest degree odious to the British nation, the strong current of public opinion for a season suppressed that spirit of intolerance and cupidity which had before & has since distinguished the conduct of her ministers. As early however as the year 1793, the french revolution furnished them with a pretext to adopt regulations which were calculated and had for their object the destruction of the trade of neutrals, of which ours was infinitely the most considerable, while the States ^states^ of Europe were engaged in plan ^plans^ of mutual destruction, we were preserving a Strict & honest neutrality were progressing with a sure & ^steady^ steps to the highest pitch of national oppulence. That Spirit of hostility which had been smothered but not extinguished broke out afresh. That Jealousy of our rising prosperity which had always continued ^all had never ceased to exhist^ became heedless and uncontrollable. From that period to the present notwithstanding the Mr Jays treaty every measure of the British cabinet towards this country has been marked by the most deep rooted hostility. Possessed of a naval supremacy which enabled her to enforce whatever mandates she might choose to adopt, she in that year entered into formal treaties with Russia, with Prussia Spain & Austria ^which were in terms^ to take any measures in their power to injure the Commerce of France, and under the pretence of effecting that, to prevent neutral powers not implicated in the war to give any protection whatever in consequence of their neutrality to the commerce or property of the French on the seas or in her ports, and ^but^ which were intended and in effect lead to the most unparalleled depredations on the extensive commerce we then enjoyed. The rigour in the decision of her prize Courts kept pace with the extension of her pretensions. The injustice of those pretensions & the unblushing tyranny with which they were enforced, roused a spirit of Indignation in this country which directed by the father of his country, in 1794 brought the British ministry, not to a sense of Justice, not to a disposition to cherish and preserve the friendly relations which were ^thus^ formally restored to between the two countries but to a treaty with which no ^American^ man was <proof> well satisfyed, but which ^however^ it was thought adviseable by that great & good man who then presided over the destinies of our country to accept, and to which nothing but the great weight & personal influence of Washington enforced ^alone enforced^ the acquiescence of the American people was imposed (Bad as its provisions were they were ^however^ however of <least> that duration ^but temporary^, the truce produced by it was as short as it was unprofitable and dishonorable.

☞ (As early as the year 1798 by instructions to her armed vessels, regulations were established detrimental and embarrassing to the commerce of neutrals, from which were & continued from that period interspersed with the Blockades of various ports, all distinguishd by a prominent disregard to the rights of neutrals, by an the most disgusting insolence arising from a conviction of her national ^naval^ superiority, untill January 1807, when by an order in councill she interdicted neutrals from the Coasting trade from one part of france to an other. And in the subsequent month of November by another sett of orders she declared "that all the ports & places of France and her allies or of any other country at war with his Majesty George the 3d and all other ports or places in Europe from which though not at war with his majesty the British flag is ^was^ excluded and all the places in the Colonies belonging to his majesties enemies, to be in a State of Blockade ^not by actual investment but^ in Virtue of that order, the same as if they were actually arrested, and compelling all neutrals bound to these countries to touch at English Ports & pay a Duty to the English Government for the privilege of traversing the great highway of nations or to be subjected to capture and condemnation.

The flagrant iniquity and unhallowed tyranny of those orders beggars all comment. However they were sought to be extenuated by their authors & their adherents at the time, than wh in every part of the civilized world where they have been heard has put upon them the seal of condemnation. ^has been put upon them^ There is now no man who as it respects the rights of neutral nations dare attempt to Justify, or ^seek to^ palliate them The torch of threatened insurrection has lit the way to their abolition in the country in which they originated and every good man deplores deeply deplores the rude <rest> they have made in the Justice of the world by ^the latest posterity will point to the period of their adoption as the Eara from which to date the abolition of the law of nations.^

☞ ^by^ These orders we were more aflicted than any & it ^as it^ was intended we should be more effected than any other nation. Nor were we backward in our expression of the feelings they produced, for so effectually was the fiend of party spirit silenced by their supreme iniquity, that in Decr 1809, the representatives of the american nation in Congress assembled, with unheard of unanimity, with <the> <republican> but two exceptions, Resolved of least the <mail> (*Gordon & Hogg) ^but two dissenting voices^ "Resolved, that the United States cannot ^could not^ without a sacrifice of their Rights, honor and Independence submit to the late Edicts of great Britain and to france."

Note. Gardner & Hogg


In whatever point of view the adoption of this resolution is considered it was of the first importance, and furnishes matter of the felicitations to every real friend of his country. As evidence of a correct discernment and Just appreciation of our countries rights and duties it was highly creditable to the representatives of the last republic on earth, as evidence of a then existing disposition on the part of those representatives to bury their party animosities in the grave of their Countries violated rights it was in the highest degree gratifying, as it respected the ^questions of^ local politics which unfortunately agitated the Country it was of inestimable value inasmuch as it clearly proved, that whatever differences of opinion had exhisted before, as to the causes of complaint against the Belligerents, a crisis had now arrived which imperiously and peremptorily demanded the sacrafice of those differences; that a crisis had arrived in our affairs which <illegible> <illegible> of difference of opinion, that their aggressions had assumed a cast which left the question for the american people singly between a Surrender of their Sovereignty & ^or^ an open ^& efficient^ support of their rights as a free and Independent nation  (All parties united for once in the Sentiment that the hostile edicts ^orders^ & Decrees of the Warring powers of Europe must be resisted, or our national honor our national character & our national rights ^abandoned^ be sacrifyced surrendered to in gratification satiate the appetite of European despots.

From this conceded to established, this conceeded axiom in our politics permit your representatives to lead you to a dispassionate consideration of the measures of your government to a contemplation of the merits of their conduct and to the demerits of their inveterate adversaries. In this examination fellow Citizens we approach you with an entire and compleat conviction that your unbiassed Judgment will approbate the former & deeply & inexorably condemn the latter.

The mortal wounds ^deadly attacks^ which had been given made upon our rights were to be resisted, the almost mortal wounded which had been given to our commerce was to be avenged. The manner in which it was to be done, was the only question for the government to decide. That it should be done the representatives of the whole nation had with one accord decreed. two One of two courses were alone presented: an immediate & open war, or restrictive & precautionary measures. After years of peace, destitute of large military establishments which the local situation of our Country & pacific disposition of our Goverment ^had^ rendered ^un^necessary, to have plunged the country into a ^instant^ war however Just it might have been, would have been assuming a responsibility which could not reasonably have been required of ^the^ administration. The fact moreover that the hostile edicts by which we were oppressed had been adopted by the Belligerents in ^during^ a period of malignant convulsion & lawless contention with which the world had never before been disgraced ^without a parallel in the annals of the world^ that madd madned by the most inverterate opposition ^by the violence of their collision^ they were under the influence of "Intoxicated councils and that with the "Justice himseld was not only dead drunk but ^who was^ "deaf, like Festus, "to the words of soberness & truth" rendered it desirable to avoid as long as practicable "a resort to the last appeal of nations."

To give time therefore for reflection to them our enemies instead of open war, your government resorted to a measure officially informed of the order in Councill of Jany 1807, & fully apprised of the contents of that of Nov, & do & of the hostile construction adopted by France of her decrees, in december 1807 adopted the a meas measure which under ^nearly^ similar circumstances had been adopted by the immortal Washington, a measure ^which many of^ the wisest Statesmen which our Country had as yet produced always believed to be of sufficient efficacy to enforce Justice from the powers of Europe, to the much abused measure of the embargo a measure which at its very entrance into the world was accompanyed from the representative hall by was accompanyed attended & through it whole course was accompanyed ^attended assailed^ by the most inveterate & unprincipled opposition that ever disgraced a free country.

To evince a determination on the part of our Government to avoid the calamities of war and to keep the doors to a avenues to reconcilliation open, the President was authorised to suspend the embargo as to the nation who should cease to impose rescind her Edicts, the proposition was forthwith made, and to Great Britain in particular that on her rescinding her orders ^as to us^ in a the embargo would be suspended as to her & our ports remain shut as to France, unless she ^also^ abandoned her decrees. as This proposition, the reason & Justice of which is now universally admitted was ^<illegible>^ rejected by the British ministry & her most obnoxious measures persisted in. In March 1809 the embargo being rendered ineffecacious by the opposition it received & the no evasions ^of it^ which were encouraged, non Intercourse acts were an act prohibiting intercourse between this country & Great Britain & France, with ^vesting^ similar powers in the president as to ^a^ suspension of its provisions, ^was passed,^ in April to succeeding Erskine's arrangement was concluded.

☞ (The first simptoms of returning Justice in the british cabinet was ^were^ seized with avidity & a <illegible> ^convention^ in part embracing & leading to an continue & satisfactory adjustment of all the matter in difference between the two nations instantly agreed upon. Relying on the faith & credit due to the compact of an accredited minister of the British King free intercourse was immediately restored between the two countries. The pressing wants of our enemiesy were ^was thereby^ relieved. and ^When^ by an act of perfidy which must Stamped dis honor on the british character, which must continue to hold her up to the detestation of every enlightened nation as long as public faith is deemed estimable or national honor worthy of preservation, she disavowed the agreement & referred a ^acts of her minister,^ baffled insulted and abused. Still anxious to avoid war, non Intercourse was again renewed as to England. in the succeeding August, in 10 the sucedg year t To do away some technical objections which were set up by the Belligerents, the non Intercourse act was repealed ^May 1810^ without any ^other^ substitute with ^than^ a legislative extra session ^Declaration^ that against the nation who should omit by a limited period to cease her foul & unnatural ^& unjus^ violation of our rights measures of retaliation should be adopted. One more opportunity is offered to the Belligerents to avoid the difficulties ^course^ which must inevitably lead to war. The French Government in a manner satisfactory to our government abandoned the ground she had taken, ^as to us^. Great Britain persisted. Still war was not declared, time is still given to render it unnecessary. A non Importation act as it respects the goods manufactures & produce of Great Britain is passed. Thus the affairs than are ^were^ suffered to remain untill the Prince Regent by his official declaration of [intentionally blank] pronounces the orders in councill of Jany & Nov 1807 to form a part of the law of the British Empire.

By this last act the doors of conciliation were effectually closed. The American people had resolved <that> the free a people <illegible> ^rich^ in resources possessed of a high sense of national honor the only free people ^on earth^ had resolved in the face of an observing world, that these orders were a direct attack upon their sovereignty, that submission to them wo involved a surrender of our sovereignity ^their Independence^ and a solemn determination to preserve in them was officially declared. under those circumstances ^By the ruler of the British nation^ thus situated what was your government to do? Was there room for doubt or hesitation as to the hostile views of England? No. Least such doubts might prevent a rupture, to acts of violent injustice was consequently ^were continually^ added deeds acts of the most opprobrious insult. While opprobious we were reposing safety on the terms of peace which situated though writhing under the actual hostilities which were were <illegible> <illegible> upon us ^the formal relations of amity remained yet unbroken, while peace was yet <illegible> supposed to exhist.^ In cool blood & with the <illegible> malice aforethought an unprovoked attack is made upon ^one of^ your national ships & several american citizens are basely and some and cowardly murdered. "<illegible> <illegible> at the outrage of the warm blooded to <illegible> their blood again" At the moment the ^your^ feelings were at highest pitch of Iritation in consequence of the perfidious disavowal of Erskines agreement a minister ^the <illegible> <Jackson>^ is sent, not to minister to your rights, not to extenuate the conduct of his predecessor, but to beard your executive, to add insult to injury & to fling insult & contumely ^& reproach^ in the face of the executive of the american people, in the presence of the american nation.

^^ under such accumulated circumstances of Insult & of Injury we ask again what was your government to do? We put the question not "to the faction or that gang which misrepresents the government to the people and the people to the Government, traduces one half of the nation to cajole the other & by keeping up distrust and division wishes to become the proud arbiters of the fortune & fate of America"—not to them, but to every sound head & honest heart, in the nation <that>it is that we put the question, what was your government to do? Was she basely and ingloriously to abandon the rights for which an you & your fathers had fought & bled? Was she so early to cower to the nation who had sought to strangle us in our Infancy & who has never ceased to retard our approach to manhood? No. We will not for a moment doubt, that every man who is in truth & in fact an American will say that war, & war alone was our only refuge from national degradation our only course to national prosperity. War has been declared to exhist not made by your government, a War which it was ^to hope have upheld^ hoped would unite every heart, & every hand in the nation.

Fellow Citizens,

Throughout the whole period of the political struggle which if they have not absolutely disgraced have certainly not exhalted our character, no remark was more common no expectation more cheerfully indulged in than, that those severe & malevolent contentions would only be sustained in time of peace, that when the country should be involved in war, every wish and every sentiment would be exclusively american, that this at least opposition to government if not <above> wholly abandoned would it least be postponed but unfortunately for us & you our Country and our prosperity those reasonable expectations have not been realised. Notwithstanding every one knows that the power of declaring war & the duty of supporting it belongs exclusively to the General Government. Notwithstanding that the constitutional remedy for the removal of the men to whom this power is thus delegated has been aff recently been afforded. Notwithstanding the unbridged will of the american people has re-elected ^re-election of^ the same par President by whom this war was commenced & ^a majority of^ representatives whose estimate of our rights & whose views are similar to those who first declared it, men who by the provisions of the constitution must retain their respective Stations for a period, of such duration as precludes a continued opposition of their measures without a compleat destruction of our national Interest, an opposition the most inveterate & malignant is still continued to every measure of the administration.

☞ (Fellow Citizens these things will not do. They are intrinsically wrong. Your country has been played into ^first engaged in^ a war in the last degree unavoidable. It is not waged to the destruction of the rights of others but in defence of our own, and it is ^therefore^ your bounded duty to support her You should lay down the character of partisans, & become patriots, for in every country "War becomes an occasional duty, though it ought never to blame ^be made^ an occupation every man should become a soldier in defensive defense of his rights, no man ought to continue a soldier in defense of p for offending the rights of others." In despight of truths so self evident, of incentives to a vigorous support of Government so pressing, we yet have to deplore the exhistence of a faction in the bosom of our land, whose perseverance & industry who is exceeded only by their deadly malignity, who seek to through every avenue to mislead your Judgments & to inflame your passions. when

☞ (When the g your government pursues a pacific policy it becomes the object of their scorn & derision; the want of energy in your rulers is decried as a matter of alarming consideration. The injuries of your country are admitted & the fact is trium-phantly alledged "that your country cannot ^the administration cannot^ be kicked into a war". When they are impelled into a forcible vindication of our rights, the ^cry^ of enmity to peace of fondness for war ^a wish to war with england to serve France^ is immediately resounded through the land. When war is declared it public opinion is sought to be solicited ^prejudiced^ against the measure as evincing a disposition unnecessarily wishing to shed the ^your^ Blood & waste the ^your^ treasures of. When it is discovered that, that declaration is accompanyed with a proposition a Just & equitable proposition to the enemy on which hostilities may cease & peace be restored, that proposition are ^is^ derided as evidence of the most disgracefull pusilanimity. No falsehood is considered to too glaring no the of representations too flagitious to seduce you impose on your credulity & seduce your affections from your native land.

Least general allegations might fail to effect their unholy purposes and consummate their dark designs specific charges are resorted to, calumnies which have again & again, met the detestation of an enlightened public are periodically brought aro forward, new dressed & with new authorities to give them credence with you.

Among the most prominent of those charges is that of enmity to commerce on the part of the Republican ad administrations. If Never was their a calumny more wicked. Enmity to commerce. We ask & we ask more emphatically were is the evidence of it? What is the basis on which they rest their claim to public confidence, that the administration is engaged in a war which they claim to be unpopular? What are the causes who for which this war are ^is^ waged & which have produced all the embarassment ^hitherto^ embroiled us with the nations of Europe? They are ^the^ nothing more than ^the^ <republican> violations of our commercial rights. ^(& the impressment of our seamen) The administration ^then^ Jeopardize their influence with the people, they furnish weapons of offence to their adversaries, they brave all dangers for the maintenance & support of our commercial rights, & yet they are the enemies of Commerce. Can such base Sophistry, such contemptible ribaldry impose on the credulity or pervert the understanding of a Single honest man?

As auxiliary to this unfounded aspersion the oft exploded the ten thousand times refuted tale of for French influence is ever and anon brought upon the carpet It would be insulting to your understandings to detain you by a discussion of this odious and insulting insinuation. Was it evidence of French influence on the adoption of every measure of commercial restriction to place both France & England on the same footing? Was it evidence of French influence to cause it to be officially notifyed to the from court of Saint James on the adoption of each of those measures that in case they rescinded their orders in councill the U. States would assume a hostile attitude towards France? Was it evidence of French influence to embrace the earliest opportunity to adopt ^conclude^ the arrangement with Erskine, leaving our affairs with france in a hostile attitude? Were then is the evidence of ^to support^ this impudent censure? When a Fr Is to be found in a Similarity of manners of language or of feeling? "When an englishman visits your country is he not received with the familiarity, and cherished with the hospitality of a friend? Is this a Frenchman ever treated by you otherwise than as a Stranger" Away then with those wining canting professions of fears & apprehensions about of the danger of French Influence. This authories ^must^ know them to be false.

But to crown this picture of Folly and of mischief they approach you under a garb which at once evinces their contempt for your understanding & their total want of confidence in your patriotism and Integrity, under a garb which should receive the mo most distinct marks of your detestation. They are "Tthe friends of Peace." They cry peace when there is no peace. When they draw there can be no peace without a surrender of every thing that is estimable. While our enemies are waging against us a cruel & blody war, they cry peace. While our western wilds are yet whitened with the Bones of our most murdered women & children, while their blood is yet trickling down the walls of their former habitations, while the Indian wharwhoop, and the British fife ^drum^ are ^in unison^ saluting the ears and the British Saber ^dagger^ & the Indian Tomahawk extended over the heads of our Citizens it at such a time when the soul of every man who has sensibility to feel for & spirit to defend his countrieys ^rights^ should be in arms, it is that they cry peace. While the brave american tar, the intrepid defender of our rights & redeemer of our national character, while the present boast of future honor of ^our^ land, impressed by force into a service which he detests & which compels him to lift his brother to embrace his hands in a Brothers Blood, while while he is yet "tossing upon the surface of the ocean and mingling his groans with those tempests less savage than his persecutors that drift him to a returnless distance from his family his home it is at such a period "when there is no peace when there can be no peace without sacrificing every thing valuable, that our feelings are insulted, the public arm paralised & the public ear stunned by the dastardly & incessant cry of peace. What fellow Citizens must the opinion be which they entertain of you who thus assail you? Can any man be so stupid as ^not^ to perceive that it is an appeal "to your fears, to your avarice and to all the baser passions which actuate the human heart? That ^it^ is treating you approaching you in the manner in which alone these puny <illegible> ^<illegible>^ whipsters who buz about you and thicken the political atmosphere. Say when they suck to your accessible, through your fears and your pockets. Can any american Citizen be so profligate as not to spurn indignant at the base libel upon your ^his^ character?

Suffer yourselves not to be deceived by the pretence that because Great Britain has been coerced by her own subjects to make a qualifyed repeal of her orders, ought our government ought to abandon her ground. That ground was taken in defence of two to resist ^two^ great & crying grievances the destruction of our commerce & the impressment of our seamen The latter is the more important, a in proportion as we reguard the liberty & lives of our Citizens to their goods ^property^. Distrust therefore the man who would advise your government at any time & more especially at this time when your brave sailors are com exciting the admiration ^& forcing the respect^ of an astonished world, when their deeds of heroic valour make old ocean smile at the humiliation of her ancient Tyrant. At such a time we say again mark the man who would countenance the government in commuting our Sailors rights for the Safity of our Merchants goods.

☞ (Next to the Cry for peace the most potent spell which has been resorted to to alarm the ^your^ fears & to pervert the ^your^ understanding, has been the hue & cry about ^alledged^ the distresses of the Country. Fellow Citizens a it has ben our object, it is our wish to treat you fairly, to address ourselves to your Judgments not to your passion. to you And as we hope our address to you hitherto has been marked by that character, it is to your Judgment & your conscience then that we appeal upon this subject. Is not this clamour most unfounded and & most ungratefull & most If you doubt that it is so, if you hesitate to believe that it originates exclusively with the ambitious and designing, for spend one moment in comparing your situation with that of the rest major part of the civilized world. Look at England, threatened with Insurrection from her own subjects in almost every quarter, thousands of her ^those^ subjects reduced to the lowest state of despair & misery, loaded with a national debt which it is admitted she can never pay, engaged in wars with its which have no prospects of a termination, reduced <illegible> ^to the^ dreadfull alternative of being compelled to continue the those wars, to direct the attention of her subjects abroad to preclude enquiry at home convinced that a period of peace, of settlement of retribution between government & subject must bring with it a period of National Bankruptcy, ^& of national convulsion^ Look at Ireland, poor <illegible> Ireland, ^unhappy Ireland^ the history of whose woes is engraven on the heart of every man of reading & reflection in which to use the language of one of her favorite sons "The Instruments of Government have almost been simplifyed to the Tax Gatherer & the Hangman." Look at France, subjected to the despotism of a tyrant who while he raises the ^her^ fame & <illegible> the ^her^ extends her domains, lavishes her Blood & her treasures in the greatest indulgence of his own criminal ambition, who has had sprinkled the woods & readened the fields of Europe with the Blood of his subjects, who has established a despotism which has in its overwhelming vortex swallowed up absorbed all private rights & individual privileges. For one moment turn your attention to Europe Austria & Prussia. See them prostrate at his feet holding every thing they yet enjoy by the frail tenure of his will & his caprice. Look at nos Russia.see Reflect on the heart rending distress which pervades every section of that vast empire, the unparalleled misery which afflicts of all classes of her subjects & see them flying from their homes & their firesides conducted in their wretched flight by the conflagration of her ancient city, of the asylum of their ancient Nobility fathers. For an Instant turn your attention to Spain. Not a foot of her territory but what has been due manured by the Blood of her Subjects, presenting to the observing eye one dreary waste, one unvaryed scene of horrid desolution & black despair. Look at the whole map of Europe. & then Contrast your own situation with it ^theirs^ and then us answer us is it not impious and wicked, to the last extreme wicked, to repine at our comparatively impious ^enviable^ lot?

Fellow-Citizens, We are compelled to close this subject ^appeal to you^. The limits of an address will not permit us to do Justice to the various Subjects which should occupy your attention. We are aware that the limits of this has already been unreasonably extended, but the period has arrived when empty words & general declaration must loose their force. We have therefore felt it our duty to give you as far as practicable and a clear view of your true situation, of your legitimate duties. the fact is, Unfortunately for us, when we ought to be a united, we are a divided people, ^in^ that opposition ^design^ is not <close> for the <illegible> <illegible> from the preference to them but a difference of principles is <violated> ^the divisions which agitate us are not as to men by of for ^but^ as to principle.^ You will be called upon at the next election to choose between so different candidates not only for the two great offices of state Govr & Lieut. Governr, but for every other elective office, to make a selection which the actual situation of your country renders of the first & last importance to your Interest & the Interest of posterity of infinite importance

You We are divided between the supporters & the opposers of your government. We have Witnessed the distressing truth that it is not in the power of Circumstance to destroy the malignaty of party virulence. by The opposers of our government  ^opposition offers ^^for^^ your support^ men who are offered for your support who whatever their private wishes may be are devoted to the support of a party whose views & whose conduct we have attempted to detail you. In opposition to them, we offer for ^respectfully solicit^ your support ^for^ the men whose nomination accompanies this address, one of whom has for six years served you in the capacity for which we now offer him. The other has for many years served you faithfully in the most responsible situations. Their presents are of such ^The^ notoriety that <illegible> would assume the appearance of <illegible> their ^of their merits supercedes the necessity of our eulogiums.^ ^Their^ whole lives are their best encomiums. They are the true ^friends^ of commerce, <attack> their views are & their conduct will be in uni^s^on with the measures of the general government. They are the sincere friends of an honorable <the> peace, the dist firm & energetic opposers of a base surrender of our rights

We respectfully solicit for them your undivided support. We respectfully ^solemnly^ conjure every real friend to his country to sacrifize all <illegible> <cases> to reflect on the danger of abandoning his country at a period so perilous, to reflect on the impropriety of <illegible> even indirectly aiding the [. . .] of our enemies by continuing his opposition to Government at a period so eventful.

^☞ loose sheet^ to remember on that this ^ours^ is the last republic on earth, that the <illegible> which has been propagated by the force of ^all^ the influence of the crowned heads of Europe ^has been exerted to propagate the doctrine^ is that, a government like ours can never stand the rude shock of war. ^To reflect^ that this is the first occasion in which our government has been engaged in a war & that the great and interesting questions whether man is capable of self Government, whether our Republic must go the way of her predecessors or whether supported by the arms hearts & arms of her ^free^ Citizens she shall deride the revilings & defeat the machinations of her enemies, is now to be tryed.

Fellow Citizens in the result of our elections during the continuance of this war these important considerations are involved. The question of who is for his country or against it ^his country^ must now be tryed. The eyes of Europe are directed towards us. The practical efficacy of your mild & whole ^form^ of government [. . .] to be ^put to the test.^ To the 

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To top ^cap^ the climax of her iniquities to fill up the measure of our wrongs & <he> extended her pretensions, she resolved to persist in an ^other^ measure surpassed by none in flagrant enormity, in cruel and <illegible> Injustice, a measure which of itself <rendered> by itself was ^was^ adequate cause of war, a measure which has excited the liveliest solicitude & ^ablo received^ the most presevering attention of every administration of our Government from the time of [Was]hington to the present period [. . .]ked ^the^ odious & <detesblable> [. . .] of in pressing american [. . .] her service, of [. . .] our sons within [...] of her ships of war [. . .] to spill their blood [. . .] him tries and spills [. . .] [bl]ood in the service of [. . .] [f]oreign government, to <promote> the ambitous view & satiate the ambitions but of a foreign despot. A practice which subjects every ^brave^ american tar to the insolence ^& Petty tyranny^ of a British midshipman and many of them to a life of the most galling and odious servitude. A practice which never can be sumbitted to by a nation of professing claims of to freedom, which never can be acquisced in by government without rescinding the great article of our safety, the reciprocity of obedience & protection between the your selves & the <realed>

^☞^ <Under> such accumulated circumstances,

State Address

Source: DLC Library of Congress
Collection: MVB Papers (DLC)
Series: Series 2 (1 January 1812-16 February 1815)